Connecting to ARCHER2
On the ARCHER2 system, interactive access can be achieved via SSH, either directly from a command line terminal or using an SSH client. In addition data can be transferred to and from the ARCHER2 system using
scp from the command line or by using a file transfer client.
This section covers the basic connection methods.
Before following the process below, we assume you have setup an account on ARCHER2 through the EPCC SAFE. Documentation on how to do this can be found at:
Command line terminal
Linux distributions and MacOS each come installed with a terminal application that can be used for SSH access to the login nodes. Linux users will have different terminals depending on their distribution and window manager (e.g. GNOME Terminal in GNOME, Konsole in KDE). Consult your Linux distribution's documentation for details on how to load a terminal.
MacOS users can use the Terminal application, located in the Utilities folder within the Applications folder.
A typical Windows installation will not include a terminal client, though there are various clients available. We recommend all our Windows users to download and install MobaXterm to access ARCHER2. It is very easy to use and includes an integrated X server with SSH client to run any graphical applications on ARCHER2.
You can download MobaXterm Home Edition (Installer Edition) from the following link:
Double-click the downloaded Microsoft Installer file (.msi), and the Windows wizard will automatically guides you through the installation process. Note, you might need to have administrator rights to install on some Windows OS. Also make sure to check whether Windows Firewall hasn't blocked any features of this program after installation.
Start MobaXterm and then click "Start local terminal"
If you download the .zip file rather than the .msi, make sure you unzip before attempting to run the installer.
If you are using a "managed desktop" machine, so do not have admin rights, you can use the Portable edition of MobaXterm which doesn't need install privilages.
If this is your first time using MobaXterm, check that a permanent /home directory has been set up (or all saved info will be lost from session to session). Go to "Settings" -> "Configuration"-> check path to "Persistent home directory" is set and make sure path is "private" if prompted.
Any ssh key generated in MobaXterm will, by default, be stored in the permanent /home directory (see above) i.e. if your /home directory is
_MyDocuments_\MobaXterm\homethen within that folder you will find
_MyDocuments_\MobaXterm\home\.sshwith your keys. This folder will be 'hidden' by default so you may need to tick 'Hidden items' under 'View' in Windows Explorer to see it.
MobaXterm also allows you to set up ssh sessions with the username, login host and key details saved. You are welcome to use this, rather than using the "Local terminal" but we are not able to assist with debugging connection issues if you choose this method. We recommend sticking to command line terminal access.
To access ARCHER2, you need to use two credentials: your password and an SSH key pair protected by a passphrase. You can find more detailed instructions on how to set up your credentials to access ARCHER2 from Windows, macOS and Linux below.
SSH Key Pairs
You will need to generate an SSH key pair protected by a passphrase to access ARCHER2.
Using a terminal (the command line), set up a key pair that contains your e-mail address and enter a passphrase you will use to unlock the key:
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "firstname.lastname@example.org" ... -bash-4.1$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "email@example.com" Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/Home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): [Enter] Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): [Passphrase] Enter same passphrase again: [Passphrase] Your identification has been saved in /Home/user/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /Home/user/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. The key fingerprint is: 03:d4:c4:6d:58:0a:e2:4a:f8:73:9a:e8:e3:07:16:c8 firstname.lastname@example.org The key's randomart image is: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | . ...+o++++. | | . . . =o.. | |+ . . .......o o | |oE . . | |o = . S | |. +.+ . | |. oo | |. . | | .. | +-----------------+
(remember to replace "email@example.com" with your e-mail address).
Upload public part of key pair to SAFE
You should now upload the public part of your SSH key pair to the SAFE by following the instructions at:
Login to SAFE. Then:
- Go to the Menu Login accounts and select the ARCHER2 account you want to add the SSH key to
- On the subsequent Login account details page click the Add Credential button
- Select SSH public key as the Credential Type and click Next
- Either copy and paste the public part of your SSH key into the SSH Public key box or use the button to select the public key file on your computer.
- Click Add to associate the public SSH key part with your account
Once you have done this, your SSH key will be added to your ARCHER2 account.
Remember, you will need to use both an SSH key and password to log into ARCHER2 so you will also need to collect your initial password before you can log into ARCHER2. We cover this next.
The SAFE web interface is used to provide your initial password for logging onto ARCHER2 (see the SAFE Documentation for more details on requesting accounts and picking up passwords).
You may now change your password on the ARCHER2 machine itself using the passwd command or when you are prompted the first time you login. This change will not be reflected in the SAFE. If you forget your password, you should use the SAFE to request a new one-shot password.
Interaction with ARCHER2 is done remotely, over an encrypted communication channel, Secure Shell version 2 (SSH-2). This allows command-line access to one of the login nodes of a ARCHER2, from which you can run commands or use a command-line text editor to edit files. SSH can also be used to run graphical programs such as GUI text editors and debuggers when used in conjunction with an X client.
You can use the following command from the terminal window to login into ARCHER2:
You will first be prompted for your machine account password. Once you have entered your password successfully, you will then be prompted for the passphrase associated with your SSH key pair. You need to enter both credentials correctly to be able to access ARCHER2.
If your SSH key pair is not stored in the default location (usually
~/.ssh/id_rsa) on your local system, you may need to specify the path
to the private part of the key wih the
-i option to
example, if your key is in a file called
keys/id_rsa_ARCHER2 you would
use the command
ssh -i keys/id_rsa_ARCHER2
firstname.lastname@example.org to log in.
When you first log into ARCHER2, you will be prompted to change your initial password. This is a three step process:
- When promoted to enter your ldap password: Re-enter the password you retrieved from SAFE
- When prompted to enter your new password: type in a new password
- When prompted to re-enter the new password: re-enter the new password
Your password has now been changed
To allow remote programs, especially graphical applications to control your local display, such as being able to open up a new GUI window (such as for a debugger), use:
ssh -X email@example.com
Some sites recommend using the
-Y flag. While this can fix some
compatibility issues, the
-X flag is more secure.
Current MacOS systems do not have an X window system. Users should install the XQuartz package to allow for SSH with X11 forwarding on MacOS systems:
These are the entries in
Making access more convenient using the SSH configuration file
Typing in the full command to login or transfer data to ARCHER2 can
become tedious as it often has to be repeated many times. You can use
the SSH configuration file, usually located on your local machine at
.ssh/config to make things a bit more convenient.
Each remote site (or group of sites) can have an entry in this file which may look something like:
Host archer2 HostName login.archer2.ac.uk User username
(remember to replace
username with your actual username!).
Host archer2 line defines a short name for the entry. In this
case, instead of typing
ssh firstname.lastname@example.org to access the
ARCHER2 login nodes, you could use
ssh archer2 instead. The remaining
lines define the options for the
Hostname login.archer2.ac.uk- defines the full address of the host
User username- defines the username to use by default for this host (replace
usernamewith your own username on the remote host)
Now you can use SSH to access ARCHER2 without needing to enter your username or the full hostname every time:
$ ssh archer2
You can set up as many of these entries as you need in your local
configuration file. Other options are available. See the ssh_config man
man ssh_config on any machine with SSH installed) for a
description of the SSH configuration file. You may find the
IdentityFile option useful if you have to manage multiple SSH key
pairs for different systems as this allows you to specify which SSH key
to use for each system.
There is a known bug with Windows ssh-agent. If you get the error
Warning: agent returned different signature type ssh-rsa
(expected rsa-sha2-512), you will need to either specify the path to
your ssh key in the command line (using the
-i option as described
above) or add the path to your SSH config file by using the
SSH debugging tips
If you find you are unable to connect via SSH there are a number of ways you can try and diagnose the issue. Some of these are collected below - if you are having difficulties connecting we suggest trying these before contacting the ARCHER2 service desk.
email@example.com syntax rather than
-l user login.archer2.ac.uk
We have seen a number of instances where people using the syntax
ssh -l user login.archer2.ac.uk
have not been able to connect properly and get prompted for a password many times. We have found that using the alternative syntax:
works more reliably. If you are using the
-l user option to connect and
are seeing issues, then try using
Can you connect to the login node?
Try the command
ping -c 3 login.archer2.ac.uk. If you successfully
connect to the login node, the output should include:
--- login.archer2.ac.uk ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 38ms
(the ping time '38ms' is not important). If not all packets are received there could be a problem with your internet connection, or the login node could be unavailable.
If you are having trouble entering your password consider using a password manager, from which you can copy and paste it. This will also help you generate a secure password. If you need to reset your password, instructions for doing so can be found in the SAFE documentation
Windows users please note that
Ctrl+V does not work to paste in to
PuTTY, MobaXterm, or PowerShell. Instead use
Shift+Ins to paste.
Alternatively, right-click and select 'Paste' in PuTTY and MobaXterm, or
simply right-click to paste in PowerShell.
If you get the error message
Permission denied (publickey) this can
indicate a problem with your SSH key. Some things to check:
Have you uploaded the key to SAFE? Please note that if the same key is reuploaded SAFE will not map the "new" key to ARCHER2. If for some reason this is required, please delete the key first, then reupload.
Is ssh using the correct key? You can check which keys are being found and offered by ssh using
ssh -vvv. If your private key has a non-default name you can use the
-iflag to provide it to ssh, i.e.
ssh -i path/to/key firstname.lastname@example.org.
Are you entering the passphrase correctly? You will be asked for your private key's passphrase first. If you enter it incorrectly you will usually be asked to enter it again, and usually up to three times in total, after which ssh will fail with
Permission denied (publickey). If you would like to confirm your passphrase without attempting to connect, you can use
ssh-keygen -y -f /path/to/private/key. If successful, this command will print the corresponding public key. You can also use this to check it is the one uploaded to SAFE.
Are permissions correct on the ssh key? One common issue is that the permissions are incorrect on the either the key file, or the directory it's contained in. On Linux/MacOS for example, if your private keys are held in
~/.ssh/you can check this with
ls -al ~/.ssh. This should give something similar to the following output:
$ ls -al ~/.ssh/ drwx------. 2 user group 48 Jul 15 20:24 . drwx------. 12 user group 4096 Oct 13 12:11 .. -rw-------. 1 user group 113 Jul 15 20:23 authorized_keys -rw-------. 1 user group 12686 Jul 15 20:23 id_rsa -rw-r--r--. 1 user group 2785 Jul 15 20:23 id_rsa.pub -rw-r--r--. 1 user group 1967 Oct 13 14:11 known_hosts
The important section here is the string of letters and dashes at the start, for the lines ending in
id_rsa.pub, which indicate permissions on the containing directory, private key, and public key respectively. If your permissions are not correct, they can be set with
chmod. Consult the table below for the relevant
chmodcommand. On Windows, permissions are handled differently but can be set by right-clicking on the file and selecting Properties > Security > Advanced. The user, SYSTEM, and Administrators should have
Full control, and no other permissions should exist for both public and private key files, and the containing folder.
chmod can be used to set permissions on the target in the following
chmod <code> <target>. So for example to set correct permissions
on the private key file
id_rsa_ARCHER2 one would use the command
chmod 600 id_rsa_ARCHER2.
Unix file permissions can be understood in the following way. There are
three groups that can have file permissions: (owning) users, (owning)
groups, and others. The available permissions are read, write,
and execute. The first character indicates whether the target is a
-, or directory
d. The next three characters indicate the
owning user's permissions. The first character is
r if they have read
- if they don't, the second character is
w if they have
- if they don't, the third character is
x if they
have execute permission,
- if they don't. This pattern is then
repeated for group, and other permissions. For example the pattern
-rw-r--r-- indicates that the owning user can read and write the file,
members of the owning group can read it, and anyone else can also read
chmod codes are constructed by treating the user, group, and
owner permission strings as binary numbers, then converting them to
decimal. For example the permission string
111 000 000 ->
SSH verbose output
Verbose debugging output from
ssh can be very useful for diagnosing
the issue. In particular, it can be used to distinguish between problems
with the SSH key and password - further details are given below. To
enable verbose output add the
-vvv flag to your SSH command. For
ssh -vvv email@example.com
The output is lengthy, but somewhere in there you should see lines similar to the following:
debug1: Next authentication method: keyboard-interactive debug2: userauth_kbdint debug3: send packet: type 50 debug2: we sent a keyboard-interactive packet, wait for reply debug3: receive packet: type 60 debug2: input_userauth_info_req debug2: input_userauth_info_req: num_prompts 1 Password: debug3: send packet: type 61 debug3: receive packet: type 60 debug2: input_userauth_info_req debug2: input_userauth_info_req: num_prompts 0 debug3: send packet: type 61 debug3: receive packet: type 51 Authenticated with partial success. debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,password
If you do not see the
Password: prompt you may have connection issues,
or there could be a problem with the ARCHER2 login nodes. If you do not
Authenticated with partial success it means your password was not
accepted. You will be asked to re-enter your password, usually two more
times before the connection will be rejected. Consider the suggestions
under Password above. If you do see
Authenticated with partial
success, it means your password was accepted, and your SSH key will now
You should next see something similiar to:
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:<key_hash> <path_to_private_key> debug3: send_pubkey_test debug3: send packet: type 50 debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply debug3: receive packet: type 60 debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg rsa-sha2-512 blen 2071 debug2: input_userauth_pk_ok: fp SHA256:<key_hash> debug3: sign_and_send_pubkey: RSA SHA256:<key_hash> Enter passphrase for key '<path_to_private_key>': debug3: send packet: type 50 debug3: receive packet: type 52 debug1: Authentication succeeded (publickey).
Most importantly, you can see which files ssh has checked for private
keys, and you can see if any key is accepted. The line
succeeded indicates that the SSH key has been accepted. By default ssh
will go through a list of standard private key files, as well as any you
have specified with
-i or a config file. This is fine, as long as one
of the files mentioned is the one that matches the public key uploaded
If your SSH key passphrase is incorrect, you will be asked to try again
up to three times in total, before being disconnected with
denied (publickey). If you enter your passphrase correctly, but still
see this error message, please consider the advice under SSH key
The equivalent information can be obtained in PuTTY by enabling all logging in settings.