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Arm Forge

Arm Forge

Arm Forge provides debugging and profiling tools for MPI parallel applications, and OpenMP or pthreads mutli-threaded applications (and also hydrid MPI/OpenMP). The debugger and profiler are called DDT and MAP, respectively.

ARCHER2 has a license for up to 64 nodes (8192 cores) shared between all users at any one time. (Note cores are counted by the license, not MPI processes, threads, or any other software entity.)

There are two ways of running the Arm user interface. If you have a good internet connection to ARCHER2, the GUI can be run on the front-end (with an X-connection). Alternatively, one can download a copy of the Forge remote client to your laptop or desktop, and run it locally. The remote client should be used if at all possible.

To download the remote client, see the Arm developer download pages. Version 22.0.3 is known to work at the time of writing. Connecting with the remote client is discussed below.


Arm Forge is a commercial package for which CSE has a licence until April 2023. Availability of Forge beyond April 2023 will depend on continued funding for the license. Therefore, please let us know if Arm Forge is useful in your work.

One time set-up for using Forge

A preliminary step is required to set up the necessary Forge configuration files that allow DDT and MAP to initialise its environment correctly so that it can, for example, interact with the SLURM queue system. These steps should be performed in the /work file system on ARCHER2.

It is recommended that these commands are performed in the top-level work file system directory for the user account: /work/project/project/${USER} (where project is the relevant project). This directory will be referred to throughout as ${WORK}.

module load arm/forge
cd ${WORK}
source ${FORGE_ROOT}/config-init
This will create a directory ${WORK}/.allinea with the following files:
ls .allinea
system.config  user.config
The directory will also store other relevant files when Forge is run.

Using DDT

DDT ("distributed debugging tool") provides an easy-to-use graphical interface for source-level debugging of compiled C/C++ or Fortran codes. It can also be used for non-interactive debugging, and there is also some limited support for python debugging.


To prepare your program for debugging, compile and link in the normal way but remember to include the -g compiler option to retain symbolic information in the executable. For some programs, it may be necessary to reduce the optimisation to -O0 to obtain full and consistent information. (However, this in itself can change the behaviour of bugs, so some experimentation may be necessary.)

Post-mortem debugging

A non-interactive method of debugging is available which allows information to be obtained on the state of the execution at the point of failure in a batch job.

Such a job can be submitted to the batch system in the usual way. The relevant command to start the executable is, e.g.,:

# ... SLURM batch commands as usual ...

module load arm/forge

export OMP_PLACES=cores

ddt --verbose --offline --mpi=slurm --np 8 \
    --mem-debug=fast --check-bounds=before \
The parallel launch is delegated to ddt and the --mpi=slurm option indicates to ddt that the relevant queue system is SLURM (there is no explicit srun). It will also be necessary to state explicitly to ddt the number of processes required (here --np 8). For other options see, e.g., ddt --help.

Note that higher levels of memory debugging can result in extremely slow execution. The example given above uses the default --mem-debug=fast which should be a reasonable first choice.

Execution will produce a .html format report which can be used to examine what the state of the execution was at the point of failure.

Interactive debugging: using the client to submit a batch job

Start the client interactively (for details of remote launch, see below), e.g.,

module load arm/forge

This should start a window as shown below. Click on the ddt panel on the left, and then on the "Run and debug a program" option. This will bring up the "Run" dialogue as shown.


  • One can start either DDT or MAP by clicking the appropriate panel on the left-hand side;

  • If the license has connected successfully, a serial number will be shown in small text at the lower left.

Arm Forge window

In the "Application" sub panel of the "Run" dialogue, details of the executable, command line arguments or data files, the working directory and so on should be arranged.

Click the "MPI" checkbox and specifiy the MPI implemenation which should be "SLURM (generic)". This is done by clicking the "Details" button and then the "Change.." button. Choose the "SLURM (generic)" implementation from the MPI Implementation pull-down menu section and click "OK". You can then specify the required number of nodes/processes and so on.

Click the OpenMP checkbox and select the relevant number of threads (if there is no OpenMP in the application itself, select 1 thread).

Click the "Submit to Queue" checkbox and then the associated "Configure" button. A new dialogue of options will pop-up. In the top dialgoue box "Submission template file" enter ${FORGE_ROOT}/templates/archer2.qtf and click ok.

The file specified provides a template with many of the options required for a standard batch job. You will then need to click on the "Queue Parameters" button in the same section and specify the relevant project budget to use the queue system in the "Account" entry.

The default queue template file configuration uses the short QoS with the standard time limit of 20 minutes. If something different is required, one can edit the settings. Alternatively, one can make a copy of the archer2.qtf file (e.g., in ${WORK}/.allinea) and make the relevant changes. This new file can then be specifed in the dialogue.

There may be a short delay while the sbatch job starts. Debugging should then proceed as described in the Allinea documentation.

Using MAP

Load the arm/forge module:

module load arm/forge

Compilation and linking

Compilation should take place as usual. However, an additional set of libraries is required at link time.

The path to the additional libraries required will depend on the programming environment you are using. Here are the paths for each of the compiler environments:

  • PrgEnv-cray: ${FORGE_ROOT}/map/lib/crayclang/10.0
  • PrgEnv-gnu: ${FORGE_ROOT}/map/lib/gnu/8.0
  • PrgEnv-aocc: ${FORGE_ROOT}/map/lib/aocc/3.0

For example, for PrgEnv-gnu the additional options required at link time are

-L{FORGE_ROOT}/map/lib/gnu/8.0 \
-lmap-sampler-pmpi -lmap-sampler \
-Wl,--eh-frame-hdr -Wl,-rpath=${FORGE_ROOT}/map/lib/gnu/8.0

Generating a profile

Submit a batch job in the usual way, and include the lines:

# ... SLURM batch commands as usual ...

module load arm/forge

map -n <number of MPI processes> --mpiargs="--hint=nomultithread --distribution=block:block" --profile ./my_executable
Successful execution will generate a file with a .map extension.

This .map file may be viewed via the GUI (start with either map or forge) by selecting the "Load a profile data file from a previous run" option. The resulting file selection dialogue can then be used to specify the .map file.

Connecting with the remote client

If one starts the Forge client on e.g., a laptop, one should see the main window as shown above. Select "Remote Launch" and then "Configure" from the pull-down menu. In the "Configure Remote Connections" dialgoue click "Add". The following window should be displayed. Fill in the fields as shown. The "Connection Name" is just a tag for convenience (useful if a number of different accounts are in use). The "Host Name" should be as shown with the appropriate userid. The "Remote Installation Directory" should be exactly as shown. The "Remote Script" is needed to execute additional environment commands on connection. A default script is provided in the location shown:


Other settings can be as shown. Remember to click "OK" when done.

Remote Launch Settings

From the "Remote Launch" menu you should now see the new Connection Name. Select this, and enter the relevant ssh passphase and machine password to connect. A remote connection will allow you to debug, or view a profile, as discussed above.

If different commands are required on connection, a copy of the remote-init script can be placed in, e.g., ${HOME/home/work}/.allinea and edited as necessary. The full path of the new script should then be specified in the remote launch settings dialogue. Note that the script changes directory to the /work/ file system so that batch submissions via sbatch will not be rejected.

Finally, note that ssh may need to be configured so that it picks up the correct local public key file. This may be done, e.g., via the local .ssh/config configuration file.